Thank you Malu for taking this issue to the attention.
Forestration is highly important as sustainable source of water. Deforestation is being clearly demonstrated as an environmental threat in terms of climate change and biodiversity. Rapid population growth and industrialization in the world create intense pressure on natural resources, and forests are also seriously affected by this negativity. It is thought that these inconveniences will increase the pressure on our forests as the functions of forests such as biodiversity, soil protection, water production, recreation, hunting and ecotourism become increasingly important. To deal with this problem, In Turkey, as a result of the implementation of the afforestation and erosion control mobilization action plan covering the years 2008-2012, the forest area has been reached 22.3 million hectares from 20.2 million hectares. As a result of all these applications, Turkey has become one of the rare countries that increase the presence of forests in the world.
1 year 3 months
Affordable and clean energy, as SDG 15, is also dealing with the promotion of sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems. Hydropower plants supply clean energy. However, there are some concerns related to the environmental flows of small hydro power plants. Prof. Ibrahim Gurer, who is specialist on this issue, has prepared following note reflecting Turkish experiences on this problem:
The energy need of Turkey is increasing. The hydroelectric facilities contribute much to this need. Starting with the end of last century, Turkey decided to utilize the available small hydopower capacity if it would be feasible. Now there are about 1500 small HPP (Hydro Power Plant) in operation. All these small HPPs were done by BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) approach by private energy sector.
During design and construction periods, the number of financial and technical problems faced is almost nill. But, especially during the dry years, the Environmental flow , computed by using any one of the methods which are grouped as :
. Hydrological methods based on an analysis of the historic time-series and subsumed
in easily applicable empirical formulae.
. Hydro-biologic methods based on scientific criteria, applicable only to a particular
river, and taking into account both hydrologic and biologic parameters,
is becoming more and more important especially when the a creek or small river flows through a village having no waste water disposal network and waste water treatment plant, the biological purification system. In Turkey , the waste disposal is solved by permeable, and/or semi permeable septic tanks. If the environmental flow allowed from the weir which was constructed on the river to rise the head and to provide partial storage for water supply to small HPP system, is less than the minimum Q reqired than a series of negative impacts on the health of th local people and also the of small agricultural plots and even the 50 to 100 years old wallnut trees. The social mentality of the people becomes more sensitive to agitation by some NGOs (non governmental organizations). The number of this type of NGOs are few but sometimes they are very influential on the local people. The more reasonable and more organized NGOs can contribute to early solutions and prevent the unnecessary negative impacts beforehand. It isconsidered that the Civil, Geological, Environmental, Meteorological, Forest and etc. Engineers’ chambers can be more influntial and moderate on this problem more effectively.
During the construction period,of course ther may be demage to valley landscape, to recover may take very long time if the annual precipitation is low, but at North Eastern Anatolia, the precitation is high enough to recover the valley scratches, especially done by water transmission canals run with very mild slopes and continue sometimes 5 to 10 km on the high up sides of the valley to ptovide enough energy head.
There may be also negative impacts on the local fish population and species, natural habitat, wild life and endemic plants. It is strongly recommended that; before the contract will be opened for bidding, the above listed negative environmental impacts should be studied in detail by a group of shareholders and make the correct assesment and then follow up the impacts five years before Project starts and continue ten years during operation of the small HPP.
1 year 3 months
Thank you Malu for your inquiry. I am sorry for being late to reply your question. Regarding to your question, I would like to inform yhat a well balanced aproach in Turkey is applied for the determination of environmental flows. Accordingly, there are two basic resources in Turkey in evaluating the e-flows. First, Hydrological based methods such as Tennant method estimates the minimum flow as regards to minimum data requirement and practical application. Secondly, ecological impact report which is a part of Environmental impact assessment anayses determining water quantity for the sustainability for aquatic life including the details of species in that habitat. Hydraulic based calculations (wetted perimeter, etc) are used for detailed investigations especially wider cross-sections. In Turkey, institutional framework of ecological imassessment reports covers many govermental organisations State Hydraulic Works (DSI), Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, D.G. Nature Protection and Ministry of Water and Forestry. Considering global changes ( climate change, urbanisation, population growth), it is commented that some more scientific studies are needed to focus on this hot topic.
1 year 3 months
Thank you for this valuable information. Could you please further explain how does this strong change in the precipitation regime in India affects the sustainability of water management? Thank you.
1 year 3 months
Dear Dr. Ferreira, thank you for your opinion. We trust that you will be having the opportunity to raise this issue during the Forum week.
1 year 3 months
Dear Malu, you are mentioning about the targets to be reached until the year 2020. Could you please mention some more about these targets? Thank you.
Regarding ro the international cooperation, I think we can mention also the Commission on Ecosystem Management under IUCN.
In fact, the Forum itself, strongly enhancing international cooperations, establishes an umbrella network for all ecosystem-related structures available all around the World.
1 year 10 months
Thank you Camilla for raising an important issue regarding to the governing of the ecosystems. As you have already indicated, the Brisbane Definition explains the "Environmental flows" as the quantity, timing, and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems. It consists of the interface between hydroenergy and environmental protection. Understanding the nature of water environment has the crucial importance to live friendly with it. Science with all disciplines ( hydrology, hydraulic, biology, economics etc.) can help us for this challenge. In Turkish case, a well balanced aproach is applied for the determination of environmental flows. First Hydrological based methods such as Tenant method estimates the minimum flow as regards to minimum data requirement and practical application. Secondly, ecological impact report which is a part of Environmental impact assessment report determines water quantity for the sustainability for aquatic life including the details of species in that habitat. Hydraulic based calculations (wetted perimeter, etc) used for detailed investigations especially wider cross-sectiıons. Institutional framework of ecological imassessment reports covers many govermental organisations State Hydraulic Works (DSI), Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, D.G. Nature Protection and Ministry of Water and Forestry. When we consider global change ( climate change, urbanisation, population growth), scientific studies are needed to focus on this hot topic.
There is competition among sectors in terms of water use. There are various pressures on water resources. Sectoral water allocation planning should be done to reduce these pressures. In the sectoral water allocation plan, instead of demand management, an infrastructure that can meet the increasing demands in the most appropriate manner should be established.
Development of sectoral water allocation plan would be done by considering demand management for total water potential and evaluation of hydrologic, environment, economic and social conditions in the context of surface and groundwater resources.
2 years 3 months
Thank you Daniela. Retired from a State Organization in Turkey, I am presently working for a private company in water sector.
Agree with you that good governance should be the centre of our debate. In this framework, main aim is the efficient use of water, one of the topics as indicated in the introduction text. Sectoral water allocation plan can be considered as a efficient tool for the efficient use of water.