Ecosystem will be maintained only when there is a sure water flowing in river and minimum pollution will enter in river water. DOing some developmental work creats some pooltion but the quantity of polluted matters must be very less. It should be tapped at source. Major cities are residing on the banks of rivers. and many cities are throwing their sewage into the rivers without any treatment. This known fact must be changed to maintain riverine ecosystem.
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Inland Water resources of the country are classified as rivers and canals; reservoirs; tanks & ponds; beels, oxbow lakes, derelict water; and brackish water. Other than rivers and canals, total water bodies cover all area of about 7 M.Ha. Of the fivers and canals, Uttar Pradesh occupies the First place with the total length of rivers and canals as 31.2 thousand km, which is about 17 percent of the total length of rivers and canals in the country. Other states following Uttar Pradesh are Jammu & Kashmir and Madhya Pradesh. Among the remaining forms of the inland water resources, tanks and ponds have maximum area (2.9 M.Ha.) followed by reservoirs (2.1 M.Ha.).
Most of the area under tanks and ponds lies in Southern States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. These states along with West Bengal, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, account for 62 percent of total area under tanks and ponds in the country. As far as reservoirs are concerned, major states like Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasman and Uttar Pradesh account for larger portion of area under reservoirs. More than 77 percent of area under beels, oxbow, lakes and derelict water lies in the states of Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and Assam. Orissa ranks first as regards the total area of brackish water and is followed by Gujarat, Kerala and West Bengal. The total area of inland water resources is, thus, unevenly distributed over the country with five states namely Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka and West Bengal accounting for more than half of the country's inland water bodies.
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Rainfall in India is dependent in differing degrees on the South-West and North-East monsoons, on shallow cyclonic depressions and disturbances and on violent local storms which form regions where cool humid winds the sea meet hot dry winds from the land and occasionally reach cyclonic dimension. Most of the rainfall in India takes place under the influence of South West monsoon between June to September except in Tamil Nadu where it is under the influence of North-East monsoon during October and November. The rainfall in India shows great variations, unequal seasonal distribution, still more unequal geographical distribution and the frequent departures from the normal. It generally exceeds 1000 mm in areas to the East of Longitude 78 degree. It extends to 2500 mm along almost the entire West Coast and Western Ghats and over most of Assam and Sub-Himalayan West Bengal. On the West of the line joining Porbandar to Delhi and thence to Ferozpur the rainfall diminishes rapidly from 500 mm to less than 150 mm in the extreme west. The Peninsula has large areas of rainfall less than 600 mm with pockets of even 500 mm. The estimate of areal average rainfall is subjective depending on the method adopted. Therefore, estimates of local rainfall over the country obtained by employing other techniques may differ, especially in a vast country like India.
By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases and substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination is our target. But most of the rivers in India are most polluted. How this can be achieved. Bhima river is the tributory of Krishna river which is most polluted and around 5 million people are dependent on bhima river. and entire population is facing pollution problem. Pollution is the combined effect of Domestic, Industrial and Agriculture pollution.
Major cities viz Pune and Pimpri Chinchwad are located on banks of Mula and Mutha Rivers who are tributories of BHima River. Apart from these two major cities there are more 10 cororations, 10 Industrial Areas and around 200 villages are on banks of Bhima river who are throwing their waste water into river. Dur to agro processing units farmers are using chemical fertilizers which is also a cause for river pollution.
Uncertain climate and rapid changes in climate is becoming more harmful for agricluture in India.
This is affecting on rainfall pattern which has caused many problems.
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The presence of the great mountain mass formed by the Himalayas and its spurs on the North and of the ocean on the South are the two major influences operating on the climate of India. The first poses an impenetrable barrier to the influence of cold winds from central Asia, and gives the sub-continent the elements of tropical type of climate. The second, which is the source of cool moisture-laden winds reaching India, gives it the elements of the oceanic type of climate.
India has a very great diversity and variety of climate and an even greater variety of weather conditions. The climate ranges from continental to oceanic, from extremes of heat to extremes of cold, from extreme aridity and negligible rainfall to excessive humidity and torrential rainfall. It is, therefore, necessary to avoid any genralisation as to the prevalence of any particular kind of climate, not only over the country as a whole but over major areas in it. The climatic condition influences to a great extent the water resources utilisation of the country.
Availability of Clean Water for drinking is a very issue in many river basins of India. Most of rivers and reservoirs are full of polluted water. There is a great need to establish long lasting sustainable module to eradicate water pollution. Awareness is the key word...